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Stair climbing workout to boost heart health and longevity

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Stair climbing workout to boost heart health and longevity

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Choosing the stairs over the elevator has been considered sage fitness advice for years, but new research backs up this health tip. A meta-analysis presented at a European Society of Cardiology conference this past weekend found that people who routinely climb stairs were 39% less likely to die from heart disease, compared to those who didn’t. They also had a lower risk of stroke and heart attack.

“I was surprised that such a simple form of exercise can reduce all-cause mortality,” study author Dr. Sophie Paddock, of the University of East Anglia and Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital Foundation Trust in the UK told NPR.

Her team reviewed data from about 480,000 participants, analyzing their risk of heart disease based on factors like blood pressure, smoking history, cholesterol, and genetic risk factors. Participants, who ranged in age from mid-30s to mid-80s, also answered questions about their lifestyle and exercise habits. The stair climbers were better able to ward off heart disease over the course of 12 years. 

How many flights of stairs should you climb?

A 2023 study, published in the journal Atherosclerosis, looked at exactly how many flights of stairs you need to climb daily to better your heart health. The short answer? Climbing just five flights per day could reduce your risk of cardiovascular disease by 20%. 

“Researchers discovered a 19% relative risk reduction of heart disease in participants who regularly climbed five flights of stairs per day,” says Dr. Yvonne Covin, an internal medicine doctor. “Unfortunately, those who had initially climbed stairs but later stopped experienced a 32% higher risk of heart disease compared to those who did not exercise at all.”

Like all research, this study has its limitations, according to Dr. Robert Harrington a cardiologist and the dean of Weill Cornell Medicine. “The study was done using data from the U.K. Biobank, a large observational/epidemiological study that has been used extensively for research purposes,” he says. Because the study was observational, it could not establish causation (as in, “Climbing more stairs equals fewer cardiac events.”); instead, the study is just pointing out associations between this activity and heart health. 

Why stair walking is so good for you

Heart disease accounts for one in five deaths in the United States each year, killing about 695,000 people annually. Stair climbing falls under the category of aerobic exercise, or movement that increases your heart rate and oxygen levels using repetitive activity. Generally speaking, aerobic exercise reduces your risk of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and, yes, heart disease. 

“Walking stairs is similar to many activities such as walking, running, and bike riding that are associated with improvement in cardiovascular risk, such as a reduction in heart attacks,” Harrington says. “Stair walking may be a bit more exertion than simply walking, and it also requires some balance and core strength that might combat an issue like frailty and muscle weakness.” 

Ascending a few dozen feet before you sit at your desk all day may also improve longevity. “As we age, stair climbing can improve leg power and back strength, both of which can help prevent falls,” says Covin. Specifically, post-menopausal individuals who climb stairs have been found to have higher bone density

How to start climbing stairs for better heart health

To start improving your heart health today, Harrington recommends incorporating some variety of aerobic activity—which may include stair climbing—into your exercise regimen. “In line with American Heart Association recommendations, I ask patients to aim for 150 minutes per week of moderate exercise (30 minutes 5 days a week). Mostly, this means walking at a moderate pace and light weight lifting to maintain strength three times weekly,” he says. Climbing the stairs is considered “moderate exercise” because it burns about eight to 11 calories per minute

That said, exercising isn’t the be-all, end-all of improving your health. Covin recommends keeping the six pillars of lifestyle medicine in mind when choosing how to support your mind and body. “Lifestyle Medicine is a medical subspecialty focused on evidence-based methods to support heart health,” she explains. 

These six pillars include plenty of classic advice that you’ve likely heard before: Eat whole, plant-based foods when possible, prioritize restorative sleep, squeeze in those 150 minutes of movement per week, avoid risky substances such as tobacco and alcohol, and make time for social connections. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that about 80% of instances of heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes could be prevented by prioritizing these six behaviors. 

3 stair workouts to try

While a simple walk up the stairs offers so many benefits, you can also try upping the ante with stair workouts at a stairwell near you, or on the stair climber at your local gym.

1. Stair interval training

Alternate climbing one flight of stairs at a controlled pace and one at a slightly quicker (but still safe and controlled) pace. Repeat three to five times, depending on how comfortable you are ascending flights of stairs. Take a break and repeat the workout once or twice more. 

2. Stair climbing and calisthenics

Design a circuit workout for yourself that includes climbing a few flights of stairs at a moderate pace and then dropping onto the floor for strength training, such as push-ups or crunches. For example, you migh climb three sets of stairs, do 10 squats, and rest for one minute before repeating the whole circuit. 

3. Stair climbing by time 

For a straightforward workout, simply set your watch or phone timer for 10 minutes and walk with a slow, sustained effort up the stairs or stairclimber. Take a five-minute break at the end of 10 minutes before returning for another 10-minute effort. 

Additional reporting by Jordyn Bradley

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